Alexander II of Scotland

1198-1249

Alexander was the son of William I (William the Lion). He came to the throne aged only 16, in 1214. In 1215 he invaded northern England, ostensibly in support of the Barons rebelling against King John, but more practically, in an attempt to reassert Scottish claims to the three northernmost English counties. He invaded once again in 1216, but his attempts failed, and he was forced to formally renounce his claims and do homage for his English estates to Henry III at Berwick.

In 1221 he forged an alliance with England by marrying King John's daughter, Joanna (Joan), and marrying his own sister to one of England's most powerful barons, Hubert de Burgh. When Joanna died without producing an heir, Alexander married Marie, daughter of a French baron.  By the Treaty of York (1237) Alexander was forced to renounce that claim in exchange for grant of personal estates in England.

In the meantime Alexander's attention was occupied exerting control over Argyll and putting down Celtic rebellions. He managed to extend royal control over the more remote areas of north and west Scotland; he put down a revolt in Caithness (the populace had roasted their bishop alive over his own kitchen spit), two revolts in Moray and another in Galloway. The overall effect of these actions was to further strengthen royal control at the expense of traditional Celtic power bases.

He had less success wresting the Western Isles from Norse control, and in 1249 he launched a new military action to sieze the Isles. He never made it that far, and died, leaving the throne to his son, Alexander III.

Time period(s): Medieval

Tags: Alexander II   William the Lion   William I   Alexander III   Caithness   King John   Treaty of York   Berwick   Moray   Western Isles  


History
Prehistory - Roman Britain - Dark Ages - Medieval Britain - The Tudor Era - The Stuarts - Georgian Britain - The Victorian Age

History of England - History of Wales - London History



Attraction search
in



English Heritage

National Trust membership

English Heritage membership

Free entry to English Heritage properties throughout England, plus discounted admission to Historic Scotand and Cadw properties in Scotland and Wales

Membership details

About English Heritage


HISTORY CORNER

Name the Historic attraction

Name the mystery historic attraction
See larger image



British History Quiz

This scholar and Freemason donated a collection of curiosities that became the basis for one of Britain's - and the world's - great museums.



 Clue

This Day in British History

20 February, 1547

Coronation of Edward VI

The sickly Edward would rule only 6 years

Monarch Mayhem

The eldest son of Queen Victoria, he ruled after her death in 1901



 Clue

Passionate about British Heritage!